Brain Structure

Our understanding of the structure of the brain is in its early stages, although scientists are making new findings all the time.

Below are listed many of the key components that make up the structure of the brain, with a short outline of the functions and purposes of those components.

Frontal Lobe

This lobe, situated behind the forehead, is in charge of judgement and reasoning, while it also generates higher emotions, such as empathy.

Occipital Lobe

Situated at the back of the head, the occipital lobe is in charge of many aspects of vision, including interpreting colours, detection motion and perceiving depth.

Temporal Lobe

This part of the brain understands perceptions of the senses by using past experience from long term memories as a reference point for understanding.

Parietal Lobe

This lobe allows the simultaneous and combined interpretation of information from the senses and also regulates relative spatial awareness.

Corpus Callosum

This area of the brain is located between the hemispheres and transfers information between them, allowing them to communicate.


This part of the brain is important with regards to motor function in its contribution to coordination, timing and precision movements.


The cerebrum contributes to the abilities to communicate, learn and memorise and, in conjunction with the Cerebellum, helps a person to control motor function.


This is the regulator of particular areas of the brain that are collectively known as the limbic system, which are responsible for learning, memory and emotion.


This area of the brain plays a part in base feelings, such as hunger and thirst, and the physical expression of emotions, such as happiness and anger.

Pituitary Gland

This gland located in the brain secretes hormones in order to control growth, metabolic rates, blood pressure, the regulation of temperature and pain relief.

Medulla Oblongata

This part of the brain controls many important involuntary functions, such as heart rate, and contains the cardiac and respiratory centres of the brain.


The Pons plays a part in sleep, dreams, facial expressions, breathing, taste and hearing by relaying brain signals.